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9:30 - 17:30

Orto Botanico di Roma

Payment for environmental services (PES) is widely seen as a way to “financially internalize externalities” and provide land managers with appropriate incentives to opt for land use practices that maintain or enhance the level of environmental services (ES) that are expected, but have not so far been appreciated, by “downstream” or ES beneficiaries. There are many current and emerging mechanisms that use the PES terminology, ranging from subsidies for forest owners paid from levies on water or hydropower users, thought trade in certificates of rights to pollute (based on certification of emissions reduction elsewhere), ecotourism and moral incentives to plant trees, to outcome-based contracts to reduce sediment loads of streams and rivers1.
The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) – World Agroforestry Centre of the CGIAR system – has worked on operationalising payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes in Asia, since 2002, through the IFAD-funded Rewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services (RUPES) project phase I (2002-2005) and phase II (2008-2012), and the subsequent IFAD-funded project called Climate-smart, tree-based, co-investment in adaptation an mitigation in Asia (Smart-Tree Invest), which was recently completed in March 2017.
ICRAF has helped establish incentive schemes for providing environmental services as part of climate change mitigation. The RUPES programme introduced rewards for environmental services schemes in different Asian countries, to indigenous forest dwellers and smallholding farmers in less productive environments that were vulnerable to environment degradation and climate change. RUPES achievements have included: increased awareness at the grass-roots level about the
PES concept; tens of thousands of farmers achieving greater land access security; strengthening of local institutions and multi- stakeholder networks; and generating knowledge on environmental services as global public goods.
The Smart-Tree Invest (STI) project (2014-2017) aimed to improve the livelihoods and resilience of smallholder farmers through the promotion of climate-smart, tree-based agriculture in Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam.

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